Guava cultivation is common, and also it is a commercial fruit crop of India. Guava is native to Central America. However, we can grow it in tropical & sub-tropical areas. Guava is a good source of Vitamin C, Pectin, Phosphorus and Calcium. After Mango, Banana and Citrus, it is India’s fourth most vital crop. The production of this crop is around every state of India. The prime producers of guava are Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, WB, AP, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamilnadu. Also, you can see the successful growth of guava cultivation in Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. The farmers of Punjab cultivate it in around 8022 ha area, and they produce around 160463 MT annually.
Methods and Requirements of Guava Cultivation
You should fulfil the requirements of this farming to obtain a healthy
The temperature must be between 15 – 30°C. So when you are going to plant guava plant, you should do it at the temperature of 15 – 20°C or 25 – 30°C. And the ideal rainfall must be 100 cm for guava farming. And the harvesting must be at a temperature of 20 – 25°C or 18 – 22°C.
Guava is a hardy crop that grows in a variety of soils, from poor alkaline to ill drained soil. The pH range of the soil must be 6.5 to 7.5. Deep, well-drained, sandy loam to clay loam soil is best for guava cultivation. Only soil is not suitable for crop growing, so you have to prepare it with excellent tractors and farm implements. You can use a Tractor slasher implement for this farming. It can help you to save unnecessary expenses.
There are several varieties available in the Indian market of farming. So, let us tell the varieties and their yield.
- Punjab Pink – Fruits are of medium to large size, golden yellow colour in summer, and an average yield of 155 kg per tree
- Allahabad Safeda – Dwarf variety, the flesh is white and an average yield of 145 kilograms per Tree
- Arka Amulya – Dwarf variety, white flesh, and an average yield of 144 kilograms per Tree
- Sardar – Known as L-49, fruits have a rough surface, the flesh is creamy white and an average yield of 130-155 kg per tree
- Punjab Safeda – Creamy and white flesh and contains 13.4% sugar content
- Punjab Kiran – Pink flesh, contains 12.3% sugar and seeds are small and soft
- Shweta – Creamy white flesh, has 10.5-11.0% sucrose content and an average yield of 151kg per tree
- Nigiski – An average yield of 80 kg per tree
- Punjab Soft – An average yield of 85 kg per tree
- Allahabad Surkha – Seedless variety and uniform pink colour flesh
- Apple Guava – Pink coloured medium size fruits and good keeping quality
- Chittidar – Variety of Uttar Pradesh, red dots on skin and TSS more than Allahabad Safeda and L 49
You should plough the land, then cross plough the ground and in the last apply levelling. Apart from this, you have to use good tractors and a rotary tiller to prepare the land in a way where water can not store. It can help you to grow a more healthy yield.
The optimum time for guava cultivation is from February – March or August – September. Planting should be at a distance of 6×5 m. You should plant the roots at a depth of 25 cm. Moreover, the sowing methods are Direct sowing, Transplanting method, Budding and Rootstock raising.
After Planting, you should irrigate the crop immediately. Then, irrigate the field third day of planting. Afterwards, you should rinse the field according to the climate conditions. To well establish orchards, you do not have to rinse them. Young plants need irrigation weekly and in summer and only 2 or 3 in the winters. Apart from this, you should avoid flood irrigation during flowering as it can harm the crop and can be the reason for excessive flower drops.
The plant can be ill from different pests and diseases. So, you should treat them with suitable chemicals.
Pest and their control:
- Fruit Fly – Spray of Fenvalerate@80ml in 150Ltr of water
- Mealy Bug – Spray with Chlorpyriphos 50EC @300ml/100Ltr of water
- Guava Shoot Borer – Spray of Chlorpyriphos @ 500ml or Quinalphos @ 400ml in 100Litres of water
- Aphid – Spray of Dimethoate@20ml or Methyl Demeton@20ml per 10Ltr water
Disease and their control:
- Wilt – Drench nearby soil with Copper Carbendazim @ 20gm or oxychloride @ 25gm/10Ltr of water
- Anthracnose or Dieback – Spray of Captan@300gm in 100Ltr water
Plants bear 2 or 3 years after planting. Therefore, you should harvest them when fruits get mature. Check the maturity by colour as it changes green to yellowish. Moreover, harvest the field at the right time so the fruits can not be overripe.
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