The Concept Of Mineralogy


What are minerals? 

Minerals A mineral is a solid chemical compound that can be found in nature in its pure form. Minerals are often associated with rocks in humans since the latter are composed of the former. Rocks, in turn, can consist of one or more minerals. Intensives that are observed distinctly in living organic entities don’t have a place with minerals, in spite of the fact that there are various exemptions. 

So, if we talk, for example, about minerals that are biogenic (calcite) or organic (mellite), then they belong to minerals. It should also be borne in mind that living organisms often produce inorganic materials themselves, which are often present in rocks. For note, you can calculate the determinant of a matrix, using an online matrix determinant calculator.

The mineral must meet five requirements: 

  • must occur in nature; 
  • be inorganic; 
  • be solid; 
  • have a certain chemical composition; 
  • Have an orderly internal structure. 

In topography and mineralogy, the expression “mineral” is generally utilized comparable to mineral particles: translucent mixtures with genuinely obvious substance synthesis and a specific gem structure. 

Minerals without an unequivocal translucent construction, like opal or obsidian, are accurately called mineraloids, that is, mineral-like substances. 


Rock A rock is a natural collection of minerals and mineral-like substances called mineraloids. When material solidifies or crystallizes from lava or magma, it is igneous rock. Further, magmatic can become sedimentary, due to the action of wind and destruction. At the last stage, the stone, affected by hotness and tension, changes its mineral substance and becomes transformative. But the circle from the third step can start again if the stone starts to melt again. 

Most of the research in the field of geology is related to the study of rocks because it is they that carry the entire history of the Earth. 

Types of rocks 

There are three main types:

  • magmatic; 
  • sedimentary; 
  • metamorphic. 

Each rock, in turn, has certain minerals in its structure. Each mineral has specific physical properties, and there are many tests to determine each of these. 

Samples can be checked for: 

  • radiance: the nature of light reflected from the outer layer of a mineral;
  • color: in general, each mineral has a characteristic color, which is guided by during diagnostics, but impurities can change the appearance of the substance; 
  • streaks: done by scratching the specimen on a porcelain plate. The color of the stripe can help identify the mineral; 
  • hardness: resistance of the mineral to scratches; 
  • fracture pattern: a mineral may have a crack or splitting, with the first option being a rupture of uneven surfaces, and the second a rupture along closely spaced parallel planes; specific gravity: the weight of a certain volume of a mineral; 
  • hiss: it is required to bury hydrochloric acid in the mineral to check for hiss; 
  • magnetism: using a magnet to test for magnetism; 
  • Taste: Minerals can have a distinctive taste, such as halite that tastes like table salt; 
  • odor: minerals may have a characteristic odor. 


A fossil is the result of the process of fossilizing organic material. This fossilization is caused by the process of permineralization and diagenesis. As a result, organic material is replaced by minerals over time. A good example of petrification is petrified wood. 

Thanks to this phenomenon, geologists can obtain vivid evidence of past life on our planet. Based on excavations and fossils discovered, scientists were able to study the formation of life millions of years ago. 


Relief Terrain is a feature of the earth’s surface that is part of the terrain. Mountains, slopes, levels, and fields are the four principal landforms. Minor sorts incorporate valleys, gullies, valleys, and bowls. 

The movement of tectonic plates under the Earth can influence and create new landforms by raising mountains and creating hills. Erosion from water and wind can wear down the land and create landforms such as valleys and canyons. Both processes take place over a long period of time, sometimes such phenomena can take millions of years. 

The highest landform on earth is a mountain: Mount Everest, which is located in Nepal. It is part of the Himalayas, which are located on the territory of several countries in Asia. 

The relief also appears underwater in the form of mountain ranges and pools on the seabed. The Mariana Trench, the deepest landform on Earth, is located in the South Pacific Ocean. 

Geological processes 

Geological processes are dynamic processes affecting landforms and, in general, the Earth’s surface. 

The main geological processes are: 

  • weathering; 
  • erosion; 
  • plate tectonics.

These cycles can be disastrous at times and useful in others.


Erosion in Antelope Canyon, Southwest USA Erosion is a natural process that most often occurs due to the fact that in one place rocks and soil have peeled off and moved to another. 

Such a phenomenon can wear out and destroy mountains, fill the plains, create and erase rivers from the face of the Earth. But similar processes have been going on for many thousands of years. Although it is worth noting that erosion can be accelerated by human activities, which by their actions – agriculture or mining – negatively affects the environment. 


Weathering is a process that destroys the existing topography of the earth through the influence of wind and water. As a result, the impacts of enduring lead to the annihilation of the upper layers of rocks. Some of these processes are mechanical, such as expansion and contraction caused by sudden large changes in temperature, the tensile force of freezing water in cracks, splitting caused by plant roots, and exposure to running water. So, roads require constant repairs in autumn and spring, since water that gets inside can simply destroy asphalt – the same happens with mountains. 

Plate tectonics 

Plate tectonics is one of the scientists’ theories regarding the shape of the earth’s relief. Experts assume that the Earth’s surface consists of 12 movable plates. Some of these plates do not correspond to continental boundaries, and some include both continents and oceans. 

Furthermore, they are all different shapes and sizes and are in constant motion and move from 1.3 to 10 centimeters per year. However, tectonic activity occurs at the boundaries of the plates, where they collide with each other, thereby generating earthquakes or creating mountains and hills. 

There are various geological processes that are extremely dangerous for the world’s population: 

  • volcanic eruptions; 
  • tsunami; 
  • climate change; 
  • floods; 
  • cosmic influences and so on.

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